Our extensive experience produces 5' UTR and 3’UTR securely for various biological study kinds. We are providing partners with complete tools so they may find, develop, and commercialize mRNA therapies from concept to market, all for the benefit of customers around the world.
Engineering of 5’UTR
Messenger RNA (mRNA) contains a segment known as the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR), which acts as the ribosome's entry point during translation. There are two ways that this primary structure might adopt RNA secondary and tertiary structures to control translation initiation. mRNAs' 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) are best recognized for controlling mRNA-based functions like translation, mRNA localization, and mRNA stability.
Complex RNA structures seen in 5' UTRs, such as RNA G-quadruplexes, may function as a steric block two RNA structure that is unwound by the eucaryotic initiation factor 4A (elF4A), helicases, and scanning the ribosome. The coding sequence of RNA is largely used to transport information. It does, however, have a 3' and 5' UTR, which are non-coding regions that are not directly involved in the translation of a protein.
5' UTR Structure and Function
The GC concentration and folding free energy level can be used to predict the 5' UTR structure. The 43S pre-initiation complex searches the mRNA for the start codon following conventional translation initiation; a high GC content is thought to result in ineffective scanning and lower the initiation rate. This has been proven by the correlation between GC-rich 5' UTRs and translation inhibition. Predictions determine RNA’s most stable base pairing, which has the lowest computed folding free energy.
The iron storage protein ferritin or the iron transporter ferroportin is encoded by this structure, which forms a stem-loop adjacent to the mRNA cap. In low iron conditions, iron regulatory protein (IRP1) or IRP2 binds to the latter. Translation initiation is repressed by IRP binding. The IRE-IRP-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex works together to block the ribosome from accessing the cap and the 5' UTR.
One of the main factors affecting translation efficiency is the order of the 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTR). Although numerous cis-regulatory components in human 5′ UTRs have been individually characterized, there is still no reliable method for predicting protein expression solely based on 5′ UTR sequence, making it difficult to determine the effects of genome-encoded variations and to engineer 5′ UTRs for precise translation control.
As a result, they may overestimate what occurs in vivo because scanning is believed to only need local melting of RNA structures rather than total linearization. The folding free energy accounts for the complete unfolding of an RNA domain to a completely linear form.
Engineering of 3’UTR
mRNAs' 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) are best recognized for controlling mRNA-based functions like translation, mRNA localization, and mRNA stability. Furthermore, 3' UTRs can create 3’ UTR-mediated protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which allow them to communicate the genetic information they have encoded to proteins.
It has been demonstrated that this function controls a variety of protein characteristics, such as the formation of protein complexes or posttranslational modifications, but it is also anticipated to modify protein conformations. Therefore, protein characteristics that are not encoded in the amino acid sequence can be regulated by 3' UTR-mediated information transfer.
Features of Our Services
◆ Fast delivery
◆ Flexible modification approaches available
◆ Professional scientists and technicians with extensive experience
◆ Comprehensive understanding of engineering of 5’UTR and 3’UTR.
◆ Quick completion of any project.
◆ Good quality, yields, concentrations, and purity.
◆ Client satisfaction
◆ Confirmation of the accuracy
◆ A more reasonable cost
◆ The modified 5’UTR & 3’UTR is also shipped to our customers for them to test internally.
◆ The customer is sent the entire samples in some phases.
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