Exosomes are extracellular membranous vesicles (EMVs) containing unique compositions of DNA, coding RNAs, non-coding RNAs, lipids, and proteins. These endocytic membrane-derived vesicles can supply numerous signals to target cells, thereby mediating new cell-to-cell communication mechanisms. Due to their nature and delivery abilities, these exosomes can be used in the field of therapeutic medicine. With years of experience, our scientists at Seattle Genova offer services for large-scale exosome production and purification, appropriate for the requirements of commercial exosome production. In addition to scalable upstream exosome production, we carry out downstream processing for efficient characterization and efficient profiling to offer ready-to-use, top-notch functional exosomes. Seattle Genova ensures its customer gain an excellent purchasing experience with high-quality, low cost products.
Mechanism of production
Exosome biogenesis begins with the generation of an early endosome via the inward budding of the cellular membrane, accompanied by the second budding of the endosomal membrane. The second budding ends in the manufacturing of late endosomes. These endosomes which include intraluminal vesicles (ILV) are referred to as multivesicular bodies. These bodies either follow the endocytic pathway for exosome generation or fuse with lysosome for degradation. During the inward budding of the endosomal membrane, proteins, miRNA, mRNA, and DNA fragments are integrated into the forming vesicles through a very particular protein complex. Finally, the exosomes are released into extracellular space through the fusion of the intraluminal vesicles with the plasma membrane.
Sources of Exosomes
Stem cell‑derived exosomes: Extracellular vesicles are released from stem cells, losing vesicles, microparticles, cell-derived vesicles, and microvesicles. The exosomes secreted from stem cells have exhibited tremendous capability in cell-free regenerative medicine.
Dietary sources‑derived exosomes: These exosomes are extracted from nutritional sources such as; milk to be used as bioactive ingredient in food.
Plant cell‑derived exosomes: The exosomes from Viscum album L., Vinca minor L., and Nicotiana tabacum L., are extracted through differential centrifugation supplemented with agarose gel electrophoresis.
Cancer cell‑derived exosomes: Cancer cells releases more exosomes than any other sources. These exosomes can be either promotes or suppresses cancer. Although they can be used for the diagnosis of cancers.
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