Our extensive experience produces optimized for improvement of stability and efficacy of mRNA and various biological study kinds. We are providing partners with complete tools so they may find, develop, and commercialize immunotherapy from concept to market, all for the benefit of customers around the world.
An mRNA may be translated into a protein in one of three possible reading frames. An ORF is defined in DNA sequence analysis as a set of nucleotides that, when translated into mRNA, produce a succession of triplet codons without being broken by a translation termination codon.
Due to the mRNA's single strand, there are only three viable reading frames, and only one of them is translated. A ribosome translates the codons of the mRNA reading frame in the 5′–3′ direction into amino acids to create a polypeptide chain.
The sequence of nucleotide bases in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) that codes for amino acid chains in proteins is known as the genetic code. The four nucleotide bases of DNA are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) . The nucleotides adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil are found in RNA (U). A codon is a group of three continuous nucleotide bases that codes for an amino acid or marks the start or stop of protein production. The instructions for producing amino acids are provided by these triplet sets. Proteins are created by the fusion of amino acids.
Specific amino acids are designated by RNA codons. The amino acid that will be generated depends on the arrangement of the bases in the codon sequence. There are three different codon locations that any one of the four RNA nucleotides could occupy. There are 64 potential codon combinations as a result. Three codons (UAA, UAG, and UGA) act as stop signals to indicate the completion of protein synthesis out of the sixty-one codons that specify amino acids. The amino acid methionine is coded for by the codon AUG, which also acts as a signal to initiate and stop translation.
The 3' untranslated region of the mRNA contains AU-rich elements (AREs), which have an impact on mRNA stability. Proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) can attach to these components and cause mRNA to degrade, which lowers protein levels.
Gene optimization makes use of the genetic code's degeneracy. One protein can be encoded by a variety of different nucleic acid sequences due to degeneracy. Each organism has a different codon preference (codon use bias), which can make it difficult to express recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, leading to low and unpredictable expression.
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